Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy

Dale Russell Abstract Forensic document examiners in the Department of Justice have identified specific needs in the analysis of intersecting lines with respect to sequence and dating of lines in questioned documents such as forgeries and alterations. Raman spectroscopy has great potential in forensics, in part because it is nondestructive to evidence. Raman has recently shown promise in successfully identifying and differentiating several different types of inks. There is, however, a shortfall in the ability to time-sequence marks, and to identify specific inks and pigments, especially in the case of intersecting lines. To date, this has received little attention. One major problem is the fluorescence of paper fibers and inks which masks valuable spectral information that identifies the inks.

Shroud of Turin

Click for larger view The above photograph shows Ron London and Bill Mottern setting up their low power x-ray machine, the same device that was at least in part responsible for the seizing of all of STURP’s equipment by Italian customs upon its arrival in Italy back in The wooden crate that housed the x-ray machine had a radiation sticker on the outside, and that apparently raised enough concern to cause the customs officials to seize everything and refuse to release it upon our arrival.

We arrived a week prior to the scheduled start of our examination while the Shroud was still on public display in order to unpack, set up and calibrate all our instruments and equipment so we would be fully prepared when the Shroud was brought to us. Unfortunately, it took five and a half days before the equipment was finally released so we had to work around the clock for the remaining 36 hours to prepare everything for our testing.

We were still finishing our preparations when the Shroud was brought into the examination room, a full hour and a half ahead of schedule! In spite of the pressure and stressful circumstances, everyone pulled together, worked as a team and we got the job done!

Physical Geology, by Brian J. Skinner and Stephen C. Porter A well written introductory textbook on physical geology with lots of figures. The Solid Earth – An Introduction to Global Geophysics, by C.M.R. Fowler This book has nothing to do with quartz but is about the inner workings of the planet earth, and it clearly addresses expert readers and undergraduate students of geology.

On completion of this TLP you should: Before you start There are no special prerequisites for this TLP. Introduction A large variety of spectroscopic techniques are available for the analysis of materials and chemicals. Among these is Raman spectroscopy. This relies on Raman scattering of light by a material, where the light is scattered inelastically as opposed to the more prominent elastic Rayleigh scattering.

This inelastic scattering causes shifts in wavelength, which can then be used to deduce information about the material. Since the discovery of Raman scattering in the s, technology has progressed such that Raman spectroscopy is now an extremely powerful technique with many applications. Raman scattering Raman scattering sometimes called the Raman effect is named after Indian physicist C. Raman who discovered it in , though predictions had been made of such an inelastic scattering of light as far back as The importance of this discovery was recognised even then, and for his observation of this effect Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

This was and remains the shortest time from a discovery to awarding of the Prize. In fact Raman was so confident that he arranged his travel to Stockholm several months in advance of the recipients being announced!

R. S. Krishnan

Image courtesy of Gary L. Kinsland – from Kinsland et al. Age of the chicxulub impact and mass extinction, brazos river, texas, USA. Paper presented at the , 43 5

martindale’s calculators on-line center archaeology, anthropology, paleoichnology – palaeoichnology – neoichnology, paleobiology – palaeobiology, paleobotany – palaeobotany, paleoclimatology – palaeoclimatology.

Cobalt blue Raman fingerprints Look at the Raman spectra of three blue pigments: Raman spectra consist of sharp peaks whose position and height are characteristic of each specific molecule. See how each differs from the other? Raman spectra consist of sharp bands whose position and height are characteristic of the specific molecule in the sample. Each line of the spectrum corresponds to a specific vibrational mode of the chemical bonds in the molecule.

Since each type of molecule has its own Raman spectrum, this can be used to characterize molecular structure and identify chemical compounds. Raman spectroscopy in a museum. This method is non-destructive and non-invasive, and is therefore utterly safe method for examining objects. Technical details Since the first experiment in by Sir C. Raman, Raman spectrometers have evolved into compact and easy-to-operate bench top, mobile, and hand-held versions.

Raman with his students. With FTIR, Raman and XRF are used together, making it possible to detect the majority of pigments, describe complex mixtures, and reconstruct simple sequences of pigment layers.

Titanium dioxide white

View Details As Kenya seeks to be an industrial nation by A. As a result of this, a large number of highly qualified teachers and educators will be needed. The faculty of Education. University of Nairobi, has therefore embarked on a flexible Bachelor of Education Science Degree Programme tailored to meet the challenges of the times.

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but it is electron spins that are excited instead of the spins of atomic spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes or organic radicals.

The knowledge on the artists’ materials that were available in particular regions and periods can help in dating artefacts. The retrieval of pigments with a well-known date of invention enables to date the artefact post quem. Other materials are known to have disappeared from the artists’ palette, because they were substituted by others and retrieving enables to date artefacts ante quem.

Finding anachronisms in the materials that were used, is a straightforward way for the exposure of counterfeit masterpieces. Another method consists of the comparison with the materials that were used in known works of the same artist. If it is well-established that a certain artist in a large group of works from a particular period never used certain pigments, finding these materials in a suspect painting deepens the suspicion and invites for further examinations.

Besides these reasons for the spectroscopic examination of objects of art, an important purpose of this work is to help conservators in finding the reasons of the deterioration of a certain artwork and helping them in optimising the conditions of conservation. The main purpose of any analytical examination of artefacts should be to gain as much information as possible in a non-destructive way.

Molecular Raman spectroscopy is well-suited for this purpose: By focusing a laser on a sample the intensity of the inelastically scattered light is plotted against the Raman wavenumber, which is proportional to the difference in energy between the laser and the scattered light. By using a microscope to focus the laser beam on the sample, i. This high lateral resolution can be used for the examination of embedded stratigraphic samples, of micro-samples, or even for the direct investigation of artefacts that can be positioned under the microscope.

For large artefacts fibre optics can be used for remote investigation. In this case there is loss of spatial resolution to some mm2.

Spectroscopy

Among the most prominent portable early acheiropoieta are the Image of Camuliana and the Mandylion or Image of Edessa , both painted icons of Christ held in the Byzantine Empire and now generally regarded as lost or destroyed, as is the Hodegetria image of the Virgin. Proponents for the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin argue that empirical analysis and scientific methods are insufficient for understanding the methods used for image formation on the shroud, believing that the image was miraculously produced at the moment of Resurrection.

John Jackson a member of STURP proposed that the image was formed by radiation methods beyond the understanding of current science, in particular via the “collapsing cloth” onto a body that was radiating energy at the moment of resurrection.

Chemistry and society. For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, chemistry was seen by many as the science of the future. The potential of chemical products for enriching society appeared to be unlimited.

It introduces the men whose efforts ultimately helped STURP obtain permission to perform the scientific examination of the Shroud. Dorothy was the Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first peer reviewed journal in the United States dedicated exclusively to the study of the Shroud Sindonology.

This presentation was originally delivered at the Esopus Conference. English with a preface in Italian language. Finding the Shroud in the 21st Century by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino This is the earliest paper by Benford and Marino December proposing their theory of a rewoven and anomalous sample site used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud Fire and the Portrait, The by Jack Markwardt – Czech Translation by professional translator Daniela Milton – Now available in the Ukrainian Language [10 October ] This paper proposes to resolve, and to reconcile, two of the Shroud’s most tantalizing mysteries: When and how did it incur the fire damage now generally referred to as the “poker holes” and when and why was it converted into the portrait known as the Image of Edessa.

This paper was originally delivered at the Turin Symposium. It includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes discussed in this paper, as well as the transmitted light image of the Shroud mentioned in the footnotes. Does the Shroud of Turin provide Scientific evidence of the Resurrection? Published March 24, on John’s blog: This article includes footnotes and references not included in the blog version. Here is a brief excerpt from the article:

David M. Sammeth, Ph.D.

United States Mark Dubinskii , U. Jackson , Macquarie Univ. Jena Germany Peter F. United States Martin H.

Advanced options. Topic Area.

In , he received his Ph. His research interests encompass advanced uses of lasers for chemical measurements, including surface analysis based on laser ablation using atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry, Raman-based chemical sensors, detectors for flowing systems flow injection analysis, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis , and the development of analytical instruments for on-line monitoring of industrial processes.

Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Basic Principles 2. Current Capabilties of Raman Spectroscopy 3. Introduction and Basic Principles Raman spectroscopy comprises the family of spectral measurements made on molecular media based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic radiation. During this process energy is exchanged between the photon and the molecule such that the scattered photon is of higher or lower energy than the incident photon. The difference in energy is made up by a change in the rotational and vibrational energy of the molecule and gives information on its energy levels.

From the beginning much of the theoretical and experimental work in Raman spectroscopy has been centered on the fundamentals of inelastic scattering and its application for understanding molecular structure. However, as the time elapsed Raman spectroscopy became increasingly important for the advancement of chemical measurements. Certainly, Raman spectroscopy has a special significance to the field of analytical chemistry as a whole, not only because of the impact of the technique itself, but also because its development anticipated a revolution in the way analytical measurements were to be made.

The revolution was the insertion of powerful physical methods into a discipline that had been primarily pure chemistry. The genesis of Raman spectroscopy was in the first quarter of the 20th century when the scattering of monochromatic radiation with change of frequency was predicted theoretically by the Austrian quantum physicist A.

Prof. Dr. Jens Götze

The Shroud of Turin – Evidence it is authentic Below is a summary of scientific and historical evidence supporting the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin as the ancient burial cloth of the historical Jesus of Nazareth. Michael Fischer, adapted from the original article by John C. These dimensions correlate with ancient measurements of 2 cubits x 8 cubits – consistent with loom technology of the period.

The finer weave of 3-over-1 herringbone is consistent with the New Testament statement that the “sindon” or shroud was purchased by Joseph of Arimathea, who was a wealthy man. In , there was a fire in the church in Chambery, France, where the Shroud was being kept. Part of the metal storage case melted and fell on the cloth, leaving burns, and efforts to extinguish the fire left water stains.

(공주캠)고분해능 주사전자현미경(HR FE- SEM)(High resolution field emission scanning microscope) High resolution field emission scanning microscope.

Applications[ edit ] Raman spectroscopy is used in chemistry to identify molecules and study chemical bonding. In solid-state physics , Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize materials, measure temperature , and find the crystallographic orientation of a sample. As with single molecules, a solid material can be identified by characteristic phonon modes. Information on the population of a phonon mode is given by the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes intensity of the spontaneous Raman signal.

Raman spectroscopy can also be used to observe other low frequency excitations of a solid, such as plasmons , magnons , and superconducting gap excitations. Distributed temperature sensing DTS uses the Raman-shifted backscatter from laser pulses to determine the temperature along optical fibers. In nanotechnology, a Raman microscope can be used to analyze nanowires to better understand their structures, and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes is commonly used to evaluate their diameter.

Raman active fibers, such as aramid and carbon, have vibrational modes that show a shift in Raman frequency with applied stress. Polypropylene fibers exhibit similar shifts. In solid state chemistry and the bio-pharmaceutical industry, Raman spectroscopy can be used to not only identify active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs , but to identify their polymorphic forms, if more than one exist. For example, the drug Cayston aztreonam , marketed by Gilead Sciences for cystic fibrosis , [8] can be identified and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy.

Homemade Raman Spectroscopy